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BBC六分钟词汇基础篇03: 前缀un-, in-, dis-

kira86 于2020-07-13发布
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本期BBC六分钟单词的节目中将认识词汇的前缀un-, in-, dis-的用法,还会教给大家一个学习词汇的最佳技巧。
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

资配易Prefixes: un-, in-, dis-

前缀:un-, in-, dis-

Finn: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Vocabulary - if you're serious about vocabulary, we'll show you how to learn it. I'm Finn...

资配易大家好,欢迎来到6分钟单词——如果你真心想学词汇,我们会教你。我是Finn。

Alice: And I'm Alice. In today's show we're going to look at a very interesting area of vocabulary - prefixes.

我是Alice。今天的节目中,我们来看一种很有趣的词汇部分——前缀。

Finn: We'll look at what they are, what they mean and how to use them.

我们来看看这些前缀有哪些以及它们的含义和用法。

资配易Alice: There'll be a quiz...

还会有测验哦……

Finn: And we'll leave you with a top tip for learning vocabulary.

我们还会教给大家一个学习词汇的最佳技巧。

Alice: But before all that, we're going to hear from Dave. He's just got back from lunch, but he isn't happy.

但在此之前,我们要先来听听Dave说的话。他刚吃完午饭回来,但他不开心。

Finn: Now, a question to think about while you listen: what was the problem with Dave's food?

听的过程中思考一个问题:Dave吃的食物有什么问题?

资配易Alice: What was the problem with Dave's food? Let's find out.

Dave吃的食物有什么问题呢?我们一起来找出答案吧。

Example: I just tried the new seafood restaurant, and I wish I hadn't. It was intolerable! To start with, my seat was really uncomfortable. I had no room to move. And the menu was very misleading. The photos looked nothing like the actual food. When my food came it was uncooked. I told the waiter, but he disagreed. He said it was fine. He said he'd eat it himself! And I looked in the kitchen - it was really unhygienic. There was food all over the floor. It was a disgrace!

资配易我刚去新开的海鲜餐厅吃饭了,但我现在追悔莫及。简直是忍无可忍!首先,我的座位一点都不舒适,连活动空间都没有。而且菜单也很误导人,那上面的照片看上去根本不像是真实的食物。菜上来之后我发现并没有煮熟。我把这告诉了服务员,但他不承认,并且坚持说煮熟了,而且他本人也是这样吃的!我看向厨房——那里真的很不卫生。地板上丢满了食物。真是可耻!

Finn: So Dave's pretty unhappy. And what was wrong with his food?

资配易所以Dave很不开心。那么他的食物怎么了呢?

资配易Alice: Well, he said that it was uncooked. It was cold and raw because it hadn't been cooked.

资配易他说他点的菜没有煮熟,完全就是冷冰冰的生肉。

资配易Finn: Not very nice! Well done if you got that right at home. Now, uncooked is an example of the vocabulary area we're looking at today - prefixes.

太糟糕了!如果你在家里也做对了,那你很棒哦。Uncooked这个词就是我们今天所学的构词部分——前缀的一个例子。

资配易Alice: Yes: prefixes - or as some people say: prefixes. Prefixes, prefixes. A prefix is a small part of a word, usually just a couple of letters, that we put at the front of a base word to change its meaning. For example, the prefix un, spelt u-n, is added to happy, to make unhappy, which means not happy.

是的:前缀——或者像有些人说的:前缀。前缀,前缀。前缀是一个单词的一小部分,通常只有几个字母,我们把它放在一个基本单词的前面来改变它的意思。例如,前缀un,拼写为u-n,被添加到happy这个词前面,就表示不高兴。

Finn: And Dave was unhappy about the restaurant.

Dave对餐厅不满意。

资配易Alice: Yes. He said the seats were uncomfortable - meaning not comfortable, and the kitchen was unhygienic, meaning unclean - not clean.

是的。他说他的座位不舒适——意思是不舒服,他还说厨房不卫生,即没有打扫干净。

资配易Finn: So that's un, meaning 'not' - and all today's prefixes have the meaning of not. So, Dave said the meal was intolerable. Intolerable. In - spelt i-n - is another prefix that can mean not - and poor Dave couldn't tolerate the meal. Now, let's listen to a bit more of Dave.

资配易那么un-前缀的意思就是“不”——今天所有讲到的前缀都是否定的意思。所以Dave所说的菜品对忍无可忍中的“intolerable”就是由前缀in-,拼写为i-n-构成的含有否定意义的词——即可怜的Dave对菜品忍无可忍。我们再来多听听Dave所说的话。

Example: ...I told the waiter, but he disagreed. He said it was fine.

资配易……我告诉了服务员,但他不承认,并说菜是熟的。

Finn: The waiter disagreed with him about the food. The prefix dis, spelt d-i-s, means not, or 'to do the opposite', like disagree - to not agree.

服务员不同意他对菜品的评价。前缀dis-拼写为d-i-s-表否定或“相反”,比如disagree的意思就是不同意。

Alice: Yes, and Dave said it was a disgrace - they should be ashamed of it.

资配易对,Dave还说了可耻——意思是他们应该感到羞耻。

Finn: Let's hear today's prefixes again.

资配易我们再来听听今天学的前缀。

Alice: The first one was: un.

第一个是un

Finn: Unhappy, uncooked, unhygienic, unclean.

资配易不高兴,未煮过的,不卫生的,不干净的

Alice: In.

还有in

资配易Finn: Intolerable, inexpensive.

忍无可忍的,便宜的

Alice: Dis.

前缀。Dis

Finn: Disagree, disgrace.

不同意,可耻

资配易You're listening to bbclearningenglish.com

你正在收听的是BBC英语学习频道。

资配易Finn: And it's time for a quiz. Try to work out the word that finishes the sentence. Ready? Number 1. The advert said that the phone was £5 a month, but it didn't say anything about the £50 set-up fee. It was very... a) unhappy b) inexpensive c) misleading.

资配易是时候做个小测验了。试着找出能完成句子的单词。准备好了吗?第一题:广告上说这款手机每月收费5英镑,但没有提到50英镑的设置费。这是非常…

Alice: The advert made people believe something that isn't true, so it was very... c) misleading.

这个广告让人们相信一些不真实的东西,所以它非常……选c)misleading。

资配易Finn: Now number 2. This letter has come to the wrong house. There's been a... a) mistake b) disgrace c) disagreement.

资配易现在来看第二题:这封信送错了人。肯定是搞错了……

Alice: It's not correct so... a) mistake.

资配易不正确的,所以选a)mistake。

Finn: Well done if you got those right.

资配易如果你都做对了,那你很棒。

Alice: And that brings us almost to the end of today's programme.

资配易我们的节目又接近尾声了。

Finn: Before we go, here's today's top tip for learning vocabulary: if you look up some of today's words in a dictionary, you'll find lots more words starting with the same prefixes. Many of them may be words that you already knew without the prefix. So, when you add a prefix, you get two words for the price of one!

结束之前,给大家送上今天学习词汇的小贴士:如果你在字典里查一些今天学到的单词,你会发现很多单词都有相同的前缀。其中很多单词你可能已经知道了,但没有前缀。因此,当你添加一个前缀时,就能一举两得!

资配易Alice: That's brilliant. Sounds like a good way to quickly double your vocabulary. There's more about this at bbclearningenglish.com. Join us again for more 6 Minute Vocabulary.

太棒了。听起来是个能让你的词汇量迅速增加一倍的好方法。更多信息请访问bbclearningenglish.com。欢迎继续收听我们的6分钟词汇节目。

Both: Bye!

再见!

Points:

知识点:

资配易Here are the prefixes and examples used in the programme:

资配易以下是节目中使用的前缀和例句。

un-

前缀un-

资配易unhappy: not happy

不高兴

The football fans were very unhappy when their team lost.

当他们的球队输球时,球迷们很不高兴。

资配易uncooked: not cooked

未煮过的

资配易You can't eat these uncooked apples. They are very sour.

资配易你不能吃这些生苹果。它们很酸。

unclean: not clean

不干净的

资配易That water is unclean. You shouldn't drink it.

水不干净,你不应该喝。

in-

前缀in-

资配易intolerable : cannot be tolerated or accepted

无法忍受或接受

资配易This heat is intolerable. It's making me feel ill.

热得让人受不了。这让我觉得不舒服。

资配易inexpensive

not expensive; cheap 不昂贵的;便宜的

The shop sells inexpensive second-hand computers.

资配易这家商店出售廉价的二手电脑。

资配易inactive: not active 

不活跃的

资配易He's put on weight because he is so inactive. He should join a gym!

他长胖了,因为他太懒了。他应该去健身房!

dis-

前缀dis-

资配易disagree: to not agree 

不同意

I disagree with my sister about everything.

我在任何事情上都和我姐姐意见不一致。

disgrace: something to be ashamed of 

感到羞耻的事

Your table manners are a disgrace.

你的餐桌举止真丢人。

disgusting: so horrible that you feel sick 

糟糕到让人恶心

There's a disgusting smell in the bathroom - open a window, quickly!

浴室里有一股恶心的气味——快把窗户打开!

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